The sprockets with setscrews in your attached screenshot that have 8mm bores could be made to fit on the part of the motor shaft that is behind the original sprocket however they would need to be bored to a larger interior diameter because that part f the motor shaft is most likely to be 10mm or 12mm.
I do not recommend overvolting the 24 Volt 250 Watt motor, or increasing the gear ratio too much between it and the rear wheel, because doing these things will put a lot of stress on it will probably overheat and burn out. A small increase in gear ratio should be fine though, especially if the scooter will be driven on mostly flat ground. Since you want more speed and power, installing a larger and more powerful motor is the best and most reliable way to achieve that goal.
I don't think any of those sprockets would fit a ZY1016 motor as is. The shaft portion behind the original sprocket mounting area would be the best place to install a sprocket that mounts with a setscrew and one of those sprockets with an 8mm bore might fit if bored from 8mm to 10mm ID. I would measure the shaft with calipers before buying the sprockets to determine what the shaft size is though.