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A few basic battery questions re: grouping flexibility & changing output voltage

As succinct as I can be, I understand how individual 12 volt  / 18ah batteries are connected to achieve 24/36/48 etc. voltage output from the connected configuration.

Assuming that:

*I want to dedicate my various in progress electric scooter, (24v, 36v & 48 volt) & electric trike projects to all lithium battery power

*I already own 4 good 48 volt lithium lips batteries.

My primary confusion relates to questions about grouping lithium batteries wired to provide power for different voltage.  

Can a single 48 volt, 20ah lithium battery pack be stepped down to output 36 or 24 volts through the use of some type of transformer?  

I need lithium power for a 24 volt 250 watt scooter projects. Can 12 volt lithium lipo batteries be ganged (like lead acid)  to produce the desired  24/36/48 volt outputs to power various vehicles? 

A related question for clarification is also: I've read a bit about the advances in electronic circuit boards that function as a battery management system of some sort. Not sure if my existing 48 volt lithiums have those, although they seem to work well. 

In pondering the questions above & the answers, where do these control boards factor into what I want to do? Are they applicable? Do they assist discharge  as well as with charging? 

So much for succinct. Sorry to ramble on, and appreciate any information that can be provided to enlighten my efforts.  Thanks, Tom Kiefaber  


   &, strike rtiketo the lighter modern lithium based advanced rechargeable hcargables,  

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